SDG 16: Targets and Indicators

Goal 16: Promote just, peaceful and inclusive societies

Target 16.1 Significantly reduce all forms of violence and related death rates everywhere

  • Indicator 16.1.1: Number of victims of intentional homicide per 100,000 population, by sex and age
  • Indicator 16.1.2: Conflict-related deaths per 100,000 population, by sex, age and cause
  • Indicator 16.1.3: Proportion of population subjected to (a) physical violence, (b) psychological violence and (c) sexual violence in the previous 12 months
  • Indicator 16.1.4: Proportion of population that feel safe walking alone around the area they live

Target 16.2 End abuse, exploitation, trafficking and all forms of violence against and torture of children

  • Indicator 16.2.1: Proportion of children aged 1-17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month
  • Indicator 16.2.2: Number of victims of human trafficking per 100,000 population, by sex, age and form of exploitation
  • Indicator 16.2.3: Proportion of young women and men aged 18‑29 years who experienced sexual violence by age 18

Target 16.3 Promote the rule of law at the national and international levels and ensure equal access to justice for all

  • Indicator 16.3.1: Proportion of victims of violence in the previous 12 months who reported their victimization to competent authorities or other officially recognized conflict resolution mechanisms
  • Indicator 16.3.2: Unsentenced detainees as a proportion of overall prison population

Target 16.4 By 2030, significantly reduce illicit financial and arms flows, strengthen the recovery and return of stolen assets and combat all forms of organized crime

  • Indicator 16.4.1: Total value of inward and outward illicit financial flows (in current United States dollars)
  • Indicator 16.4.2: Proportion of seized, found or surrendered arms whose illicit origin or context has been traced or established by a competent authority in line with international instruments

Target 16.5 Substantially reduce corruption and bribery in all their forms

  • Indicator 16.5.1: Proportion of persons who had at least one contact with a public official and who paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials, during the previous 12 months
  • Indicator 16.5.2: Proportion of businesses that had at least one contact with a public official and that paid a bribe to a public official, or were asked for a bribe by those public officials during the previous 12 months

Target 16.6 Develop effective, accountable and transparent institutions at all levels

  • Indicator 16.6.1: Primary government expenditures as a proportion of original approved budget, by sector (or by budget codes or similar)
  • Indicator 16.6.2: Proportion of population satisfied with their last experience of public services

Target 16.7 Ensure responsive, inclusive, participatory and representative decision-making at all levels

  • Indicator 16.7.1: Proportions of positions in national and local institutions, including (a) the legislatures; (b) the public service; and (c) the judiciary, compared to national distributions, by sex, age, persons with disabilities and population groups
  • Indicator 16.7.2: Proportion of population who believe decision-making is inclusive and responsive, by sex, age, disability and population group

Target 16.8 Broaden and strengthen the participation of developing countries in the institutions of global governance

  • Indicator 16.8.1: Proportion of members and voting rights of developing countries in international organizations

Target 16.9 By 2030, provide legal identity for all, including birth registration

  • Indicator 16.9.1: Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age

Target 16.10 Ensure public access to information and protect fundamental freedoms, in accordance with national legislation and international agreements

  • Indicator 16.10.1: Number of verified cases of killing, kidnapping, enforced disappearance, arbitrary detention and torture of journalists, associated media personnel, trade unionists and human rights advocates in the previous 12 months
  • Indicator 16.10.2: Number of countries that adopt and implement constitutional, statutory and/or policy guarantees for public access to information

Target 16.A Strengthen relevant national institutions, including through international cooperation, for building capacity at all levels, in particular in developing countries, to prevent violence and combat terrorism and crime

  • Indicator 16.A.1: Existence of independent national human rights institutions in compliance with the Paris Principles

Target 16.B Promote and enforce non-discriminatory laws and policies for sustainable development

  • Indicator 16.B.1: Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law

SDG 15: Targets and Indicators

Goal 15: Sustainably manage forests, combat desertification, halt and reverse land degradation, halt biodiversity loss

Target 15.1 By 2020, ensure the conservation, restoration and sustainable use of terrestrial and inland freshwater ecosystems and their services, in particular forests, wetlands, mountains and drylands, in line with obligations under international agreements

  • Indicator 15.1.1: Forest area as a proportion of total land area
  • Indicator 15.1.2: Proportion of important sites for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity that are covered by protected areas, by ecosystem type

Target 15.2 By 2020, promote the implementation of sustainable management of all types of forests, halt deforestation, restore degraded forests and substantially increase afforestation and reforestation globally

  • Indicator 15.2.1: Progress towards sustainable forest management

Target 15.3 By 2030, combat desertification, restore degraded land and soil, including land affected by desertification, drought and floods, and strive to achieve a land degradation-neutral world

  • Indicator 15.3.1: Proportion of land that is degraded over total land area

Target 15.4 By 2030, ensure the conservation of mountain ecosystems, including their biodiversity, in order to enhance their capacity to provide benefits that are essential for sustainable development

  • Indicator 15.4.1: Coverage by protected areas of important sites for mountain biodiversity
  • Indicator 15.4.2: Mountain Green Cover Index

Target 15.5 Take urgent and significant action to reduce the degradation of natural habitats, halt the loss of biodiversity and, by 2020, protect and prevent the extinction of threatened species

  • Indicator 15.5.1: Red List Index

Target 15.6 Promote fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and promote appropriate access to such resources, as internationally agreed

  • Indicator 15.6.1: Number of countries that have adopted legislative, administrative and policy frameworks to ensure fair and equitable sharing of benefits

Target 15.7 Take urgent action to end poaching and trafficking of protected species of flora and fauna and address both demand and supply of illegal wildlife products

  • Indicator 15.7.1: Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked

Target 15.8 By 2020, introduce measures to prevent the introduction and significantly reduce the impact of invasive alien species on land and water ecosystems and control or eradicate the priority species

  • Indicator 15.8.1: Proportion of countries adopting relevant national legislation and adequately resourcing the prevention or control of invasive alien species

Target 15.9 By 2020, integrate ecosystem and biodiversity values into national and local planning, development processes, poverty reduction strategies and accounts

  • Indicator 15.9.1: Progress towards national targets established in accordance with Aichi Biodiversity Target 2 of the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011-2020

Target 15.A Mobilize and significantly increase financial resources from all sources to conserve and sustainably use biodiversity and ecosystems

  • Indicator 15.A.1: Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems

Target 15.B Mobilize significant resources from all sources and at all levels to finance sustainable forest management and provide adequate incentives to developing countries to advance such management, including for conservation and reforestation

  • Indicator 15.B.1: Official development assistance and public expenditure on conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystems

Target 15.C Enhance global support for efforts to combat poaching and trafficking of protected species, including by increasing the capacity of local communities to pursue sustainable livelihood opportunities

  • Indicator 15.C.1: Proportion of traded wildlife that was poached or illicitly trafficked

SDG 14: Targets and Indicators

Goal 14: Conserve and sustainably use the oceans, seas and marine resources

Target 14.1 By 2025, prevent and significantly reduce marine pollution of all kinds, in particular from land-based activities, including marine debris and nutrient pollution

  • Indicator 14.1.1: Index of coastal eutrophication and floating plastic debris density

Target 14.2 By 2020, sustainably manage and protect marine and coastal ecosystems to avoid significant adverse impacts, including by strengthening their resilience, and take action for their restoration in order to achieve healthy and productive oceans

  • Indicator 14.2.1: Proportion of national exclusive economic zones managed using ecosystem-based approaches

Target 14.3 Minimize and address the impacts of ocean acidification, including through enhanced scientific cooperation at all levels

  • Indicator 14.3.1: Average marine acidity (pH) measured at agreed suite of representative sampling stations

Target 14.4 By 2020, effectively regulate harvesting and end overfishing, illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and destructive fishing practices and implement science-based management plans, in order to restore fish stocks in the shortest time feasible, at least to levels that can produce maximum sustainable yield as determined by their biological characteristics

  • Indicator 14.4.1: Proportion of fish stocks within biologically sustainable levels

Target 14.5 By 2020, conserve at least 10 per cent of coastal and marine areas, consistent with national and international law and based on the best available scientific information

  • Indicator 14.5.1: Coverage of protected areas in relation to marine areas

Target 14.6 By 2020, prohibit certain forms of fisheries subsidies which contribute to overcapacity and overfishing, eliminate subsidies that contribute to illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing and refrain from introducing new such subsidies, recognizing that appropriate and effective special and differential treatment for developing and least developed countries should be an integral part of the World Trade Organization fisheries subsidies negotiation

  • Indicator 14.6.1: Degree of implementation of international instruments aiming to combat illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing

Target 14.7 By 2030, increase the economic benefits to Small Island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism

  • Indicator 14.7.1: Sustainable fisheries as a proportion of GDP in small island developing States, least developed countries and all countries

Target 14.A Increase scientific knowledge, develop research capacity and transfer marine technology, taking into account the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Criteria and Guidelines on the Transfer of Marine Technology, in order to improve ocean health and to enhance the contribution of marine biodiversity to the development of developing countries, in particular small island developing States and least developed countries

  • Indicator 14.A.1: Proportion of total research budget allocated to research in the field of marine technology

Target 14.B Provide access for small-scale artisanal fishers to marine resources and markets

  • Indicator 14.B.1: Degree of application of a legal/regulatory/ policy/institutional framework which recognizes and protects access rights for small-scale fisheries

Target 14.C Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources by implementing international law as reflected in UNCLOS, which provides the legal framework for the conservation and sustainable use of oceans and their resources, as recalled in paragraph 158 of The Future We Want

  • Indicator 14.C.1: Number of countries making progress in ratifying, accepting and implementing through legal, policy and institutional frameworks, ocean-related instruments that implement international law, as reflected in the United Nation Convention on the Law of the Sea, for the conservation and sustainable use of the oceans and their resources

SDG 13: Targets and Indicators

Goal 13: Take urgent action to combat climate change and its impacts

Target 13.1 Strengthen resilience and adaptive capacity to climate-related hazards and natural disasters in all countries

  • Indicator 13.1.1: Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
  • Indicator 13.1.2: Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
  • Indicator 13.1.3: Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

Target 13.2 Integrate climate change measures into national policies, strategies and planning

  • Indicator 13.2.1: Number of countries that have communicated the establishment or operationalization of an integrated policy/strategy/plan which increases their ability to adapt to the adverse impacts of climate change, and foster climate resilience and low greenhouse gas emissions development in a manner that does not threaten food production (including a national adaptation plan, nationally determined contribution, national communication, biennial update report or other)

Target 13.3 Improve education, awareness-raising and human and institutional capacity on climate change mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning

  • Indicator 13.3.1: Number of countries that have integrated mitigation, adaptation, impact reduction and early warning into primary, secondary and tertiary curricula
  • Indicator 13.3.2: Number of countries that have communicated the strengthening of institutional, systemic and individual capacity-building to implement adaptation, mitigation and technology transfer, and development actions

Target 13.A Implement the commitment undertaken by developed-country parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change to a goal of mobilizing jointly $100 billion annually by 2020 from all sources to address the needs of developing countries in the context of meaningful mitigation actions and transparency on implementation and fully operationalize the Green Climate Fund through its capitalization as soon as possible

  • Indicator 13.A.1: Mobilized amount of United States dollars per year between 2020 and 2025 accountable towards the $100 billion commitment

Target 13.B Promote mechanisms for raising capacity for effective climate change-related planning and management in least developed countries and small island developing States, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

  • Indicator 13.B.1: Number of least developed countries and small island developing States that are receiving specialized support, and amount of support, including finance, technology and capacity-building, for mechanisms for raising capacities for effective climate change-related planning and management, including focusing on women, youth and local and marginalized communities

Where to find data?

The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the United Nations body for assessing the science related to climate change. The Task Group on Data Support for Climate Change Assessments aims to provide guidance to the IPCC’s Data Distribution Centre on curation, traceability, stability, availability and transparency of data and scenarios related to the reports of the IPCC.

The Data Distribution Centre (DDC) provides climate, socio-economic and environmental data, both from the past and also in scenarios projected into the future. Technical guidelines on the selection and use of different types of data and scenarios in research and assessment are also provided.

The DDC is designed primarily for climate change researchers, so the material found there is very specific and goes deeper than the indicators of this SDG. However, given the complexity of the issues around sustainable development, this kind of data is essential to be able to make informed decisions and improve in the advance of all goals.

The information below is an example of the work done by the IPCC:

Recent warming around the world has caused changes in many physical and biological systems. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth and Fifth Assessment Reports (AR4 and AR5) documented observed responses to climate change across a wide range of systems as well as regions.

Figure 18.3 of the Working Group II report of AR5 summarizes a range of impacts observed around the world based on a detailed analysis of the peer-reviewed literature. This set of web pages reproduces Figure 18.3 and Tables 18-5 to 18-9 from the Working Group II report and the references explicitly mentioned in the tables. The published tables in the AR5 can be found here.

SDG 12: Targets and Indicators

Goal 12: Ensure sustainable consumption and production patterns

Target 12.1 Implement the 10-year framework of programmes on sustainable consumption and production, all countries taking action, with developed countries taking the lead, taking into account the development and capabilities of developing countries

  • Indicator 12.1.1: Number of countries with sustainable consumption and production (SCP) national action plans or SCP mainstreamed as a priority or a target into national policies

Target 12.2 By 2030, achieve the sustainable management and efficient use of natural resources

  • Indicator 12.2.1: Material footprint, material footprint per capita, and material footprint per GDP
  • Indicator 12.2.2: Domestic material consumption, domestic material consumption per capita, and domestic material consumption per GDP

Target 12.3 By 2030, halve per capita global food waste at the retail and consumer levels and reduce food losses along production and supply chains, including post-harvest losses

  • Indicator 12.3.1: (a) Food loss index and (b) food waste index

Target 12.4 By 2020, achieve the environmentally sound management of chemicals and all wastes throughout their life cycle, in accordance with agreed international frameworks, and significantly reduce their release to air, water and soil in order to minimize their adverse impacts on human health and the environment

  • Indicator 12.4.1: Number of parties to international multilateral environmental agreements on hazardous waste, and other chemicals that meet their commitments and obligations in transmitting information as required by each relevant agreement
  • Indicator 12.4.2: Hazardous waste generated per capita and proportion of hazardous waste treated, by type of treatment

Target 12.5 By 2030, substantially reduce waste generation through prevention, reduction, recycling and reuse

  • Indicator 12.5.1: National recycling rate, tons of material recycled

Target 12.6 Encourage companies, especially large and transnational companies, to adopt sustainable practices and to integrate sustainability information into their reporting cycle

  • Indicator 12.6.1: Number of companies publishing sustainability reports

Target 12.7 Promote public procurement practices that are sustainable, in accordance with national policies and priorities

  • Indicator 12.7.1: Number of countries implementing sustainable public procurement policies and action plans

Target 12.8 By 2030, ensure that people everywhere have the relevant information and awareness for sustainable development and lifestyles in harmony with nature

  • Indicator 12.8.1: Extent to which (i) global citizenship education and (ii) education for sustainable development (including climate change education) are mainstreamed in (a) national education policies; (b) curricula; (c) teacher education; and (d) student assessment

Target 12.A Support developing countries to strengthen their scientific and technological capacity to move towards more sustainable patterns of consumption and production

  • Indicator 12.A.1: Amount of support to developing countries on research and development for sustainable consumption and production and environmentally sound technologies

Target 12.B Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products

  • Indicator 12.B.1: Number of sustainable tourism strategies or policies and implemented action plans with agreed monitoring and evaluation tools

Target 12.C Rationalize inefficient fossil-fuel subsidies that encourage wasteful consumption by removing market distortions, in accordance with national circumstances, including by restructuring taxation and phasing out those harmful subsidies, where they exist, to reflect their environmental impacts, taking fully into account the specific needs and conditions of developing countries and minimizing the possible adverse impacts on their development in a manner that protects the poor and the affected communities

  • Indicator 12.C.1: Amount of fossil-fuel subsidies per unit of GDP (production and consumption) and as a proportion of total national expenditure on fossil fuels


SDG 11: Targets and Indicators

Goal 11: Make cities inclusive, safe, resilient and sustainable

Target 11.1 By 2030, ensure access for all to adequate, safe and affordable housing and basic services and upgrade slums

  • Indicator 11.1.1: Proportion of urban population living in slums, informal settlements or inadequate housing

Target 11.2 By 2030, provide access to safe, affordable, accessible and sustainable transport systems for all, improving road safety, notably by expanding public transport, with special attention to the needs of those in vulnerable situations, women, children, persons with disabilities and older persons

  • Indicator 11.2.1: Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport, by sex, age and persons with disabilities

Target 11.3 By 2030, enhance inclusive and sustainable urbanization and capacity for participatory, integrated and sustainable human settlement planning and management in all countries

  • Indicator 11.3.1: Ratio of land consumption rate to population growth rate
  • Indicator 11.3.2: Proportion of cities with a direct participation structure of civil society in urban planning and management that operate regularly and democratically

Target 11.4 Strengthen efforts to protect and safeguard the world’s cultural and natural heritage

  • Indicator 11.4.1: Total expenditure (public and private) per capita spent on the preservation, protection and conservation of all cultural and natural heritage, by type of heritage (cultural, natural, mixed and World Heritage Centre designation), level of government (national, regional and local/municipal), type of expenditure (operating expenditure/investment) and type of private funding (donations in kind, private non-profit sector and sponsorship)

Target 11.5 By 2030, significantly reduce the number of deaths and the number of people affected and substantially decrease the direct economic losses relative to global gross domestic product caused by disasters, including water-related disasters, with a focus on protecting the poor and people in vulnerable situations

  • Indicator 11.5.1: Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
  • Indicator 11.5.2: Direct economic loss in relation to global GDP, damage to critical infrastructure and number of disruptions to basic services, attributed to disasters

Target 11.6 By 2030, reduce the adverse per capita environmental impact of cities, including by paying special attention to air quality and municipal and other waste management

  • Indicator 11.6.1: Proportion of urban solid waste regularly collected and with adequate final discharge out of total urban solid waste generated, by cities
  • Indicator 11.6.2: Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted)

Target 11.7 By 2030, provide universal access to safe, inclusive and accessible, green and public spaces, in particular for women and children, older persons and persons with disabilities

  • Indicator 11.7.1: Average share of the built-up area of cities that is open space for public use for all, by sex, age and persons with disabilities
  • Indicator 11.7.2: Proportion of persons victim of physical or sexual harassment, by sex, age, disability status and place of occurrence, in the previous 12 months

Target 11.A Support positive economic, social and environmental links between urban, peri-urban and rural areas by strengthening national and regional development planning

  • Indicator 11.A.1: Proportion of population living in cities that implement urban and regional development plans integrating population projections and resource needs, by size of city

Target 11.B By 2020, substantially increase the number of cities and human settlements adopting and implementing integrated policies and plans towards inclusion, resource efficiency, mitigation and adaptation to climate change, resilience to disasters, and develop and implement, in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030, holistic disaster risk management at all levels

  • Indicator 11.B.1: Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
  • Indicator 11.B.2: Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

Target 11.C Support least developed countries, including through financial and technical assistance, in building sustainable and resilient buildings utilizing local materials

  • Indicator 11.C.1: Proportion of financial support to the least developed countries that is allocated to the construction and retrofitting of sustainable, resilient and resource-efficient buildings utilizing local materials