SDG 2: Targets and Indicators

Goal 2: End hunger, achieve food security and improved nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture

Target 2.1 By 2030, end hunger and ensure access by all people, in particular the poor and people in vulnerable situations, including infants, to safe, nutritious and sufficient food all year round.

  • Indicator 2.1.1: Prevalence of undernourishment
  • Indicator 2.1.2: Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity in the population, based on the Food Insecurity Experience Scale (FIES)

Target 2.2 By 2030, end all forms of malnutrition, including achieving, by 2025, the internationally agreed targets on stunting and wasting in children under 5 years of age, and address the nutritional needs of adolescent girls, pregnant and lactating women and older persons.

  • Indicator 2.2.1: Prevalence of stunting (height for age <-2 standard deviation from the median of the World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age
  • Indicator 2.2.2: Prevalence of malnutrition (weight for height >+2 or <-2 standard deviation from the median of the WHO Child Growth Standards) among children under 5 years of age, by type (wasting and overweight)

Target 2.3 By 2030, double the agricultural productivity and incomes of small-scale food producers, in particular women, indigenous peoples, family farmers, pastoralists and fishers, including through secure and equal access to land, other productive resources and inputs, knowledge, financial services, markets and opportunities for value addition and non-farm employment.

  • Indicator 2.3.1: Volume of production per labour unit by classes of farming/pastoral/forestry enterprise size
  • Indicator 2.3.2: Average income of small-scale food producers, by sex and indigenous status

Target 2.4 By 2030, ensure sustainable food production systems and implement resilient agricultural practices that increase productivity and production, that help maintain ecosystems, that strengthen capacity for adaptation to climate change, extreme weather, drought, flooding and other disasters and that progressively improve land and soil quality.

  • Indicator 2.4.1: Proportion of agricultural area under productive and sustainable agriculture

Target 2.5 By 2020, maintain the genetic diversity of seeds, cultivated plants and farmed and domesticated animals and their related wild species, including through soundly managed and diversified seed and plant banks at the national, regional and international levels, and promote access to and fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from the utilization of genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge, as internationally agreed.

  • Indicator 2.5.1: Number of plant and animal genetic resources for food and agriculture secured in either medium or long-term conservation facilities
  • Indicator 2.5.2: Proportion of local breeds classified as being at risk, not-at-risk or at unknown level of risk of extinction

Target 2.A Increase investment, including through enhanced international cooperation, in rural infrastructure, agricultural research and extension services, technology development and plant and livestock gene banks in order to enhance agricultural productive capacity in developing countries, in particular least developed countries.

  • Indicator 2.A.1: The agriculture orientation index for government expenditures
  • Indicator 2.A.2: Total official flows (official development assistance plus other official flows) to the agriculture sector

Target 2.B Correct and prevent trade restrictions and distortions in world agricultural markets, including through the parallel elimination of all forms of agricultural export subsidies and all export measures with equivalent effect, in accordance with the mandate of the Doha Development Round.

  • Indicator 2.B.1: Agricultural export subsidies

Target 2.C Adopt measures to ensure the proper functioning of food commodity markets and their derivatives and facilitate timely access to market information, including on food reserves, in order to help limit extreme food price volatility.

  • Indicator 2.C.1: Indicator of food price anomalies

Where to find data?

The Statistics Division of the UN (UNSD) allows us to get information for the different indicators by country, such as the example below for Bangladesh.

SDG 1: Targets and Indicators

Goal 1: End poverty in all its forms everywhere

TARGET 1.1  By 2030, eradicate extreme poverty for all people everywhere, currently measured as people living on less than $1.25 a day (the International Poverty Line was updated to $1.90 per day in October 2015).

  • Indicator 1.1.1: Proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location (urban/rural)

Target 1.2 By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

  • Indicator 1.2.1: Proportion of population living below the national poverty line, by sex and age
  • Indicator 1.2.2: Proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions

Target 1.3 Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable

  • Indicator 1.3.1: Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable

Target 1.4 By 2030, ensure that all men and women, in particular the poor and the vulnerable, have equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to basic services, ownership and control over land and other forms of property, inheritance, natural resources, appropriate new technology and financial services, including microfinance

  • Indicator 1.4.1: Proportion of population living in households with access to basic services
  • Indicator 1.4.2: Proportion of total adult population with secure tenure rights to land, (a) with legally recognized documentation, and (b) who perceive their rights to land as secure, by sex and type of tenure

Target 1.5 By 2030, build the resilience of the poor and those in vulnerable situations and reduce their exposure and vulnerability to climate-related extreme events and other economic, social and environmental shocks and disasters

  • Indicator 1.5.1: Number of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population
  • Indicator 1.5.2: Direct economic loss attributed to disasters in relation to global gross domestic product (GDP)
  • Indicator 1.5.3: Number of countries that adopt and implement national disaster risk reduction strategies in line with the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030
  • Indicator 1.5.4: Proportion of local governments that adopt and implement local disaster risk reduction strategies in line with national disaster risk reduction strategies

Target 1.A Ensure significant mobilization of resources from a variety of sources, including through enhanced development cooperation, in order to provide adequate and predictable means for developing countries, in particular least developed countries, to implement programmes and policies to end poverty in all its dimensions

  • Indicator 1.A.1: Proportion of domestically generated resources allocated by the government directly to poverty reduction programmes
  • Indicator 1.A.2: Proportion of total government spending on essential services (education, health and social protection)
  • Indicator 1.A.3: Sum of total grants and non-debt-creating inflows directly allocated to poverty reduction programmes as a proportion of GDP

Target 1.B Create sound policy frameworks at the national, regional and international levels, based on pro-poor and gender-sensitive development strategies, to support accelerated investment in poverty eradication actions

  • Indicator 1.B.1: Proportion of government recurrent and capital spending to sectors that disproportionately benefit women, the poor and vulnerable groups

Where to find data?

On the SDG Database of the UN it is possible to access all indicators and select a range of geographical and time criteria to obtain data tables, such as the example below.

SDG Targets and Indicators

Each of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals comes with a series of more specific targets, 169 in total. These, again, are related to several indicators. In order to be able to explore where we are and how to reach the goals proposed these indicators are the data we need to objectively assess the progress of the world in the right direction.

The global indicator framework includes 231 unique indicators. The total number of indicators listed in the global indicator framework of SDG indicators is 247. However, twelve indicators repeat under two or three different targets.


Already in June 2015, the Inter-agency and Expert Group on SDG Indicators (IAEG-SDGs) started the technical work of defining an SDG indicator framework. The xperience of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) showed the importance of thinking through indicators as early as possible to be able to measure progress towards achieving the SDGs. The practical starting point was set at the 47th session of the UN Statistical Commission held in March 2016

The global indicator framework was later adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017 and is contained in the Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/71/313), Annex. 

According to the Resolution, the indicator framework will be refined annually and reviewed comprehensively by the Statistical Commission at its fifty-first session in March 2020 and its fifty-sixth session, to be held in 2025. The global indicator framework will be complemented by indicators at the regional and national levels, which will be developed by Member States.

Implementation by Member States

The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development “encourages member states to conduct regular and inclusive reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels which are country-led and country-driven”. 

The indicator framework has the aim to turn the SDGs and their targets into a management tool to help countries develop implementation strategies and allocate resources accordingly, as well as a report card to measure progress towards sustainable development and help ensure the accountability of all stakeholders for achieving the SDGs.

Member states that signed the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development are encouraged to conduct reviews of progress at the national and sub-national levels, since these national reviews serve as a basis for the regular reviews by the high-level political forum (HLPF), meeting under the auspices of ECOSOC.

As stipulated in paragraph 84 of the 2030 Agenda, regular reviews by the HLPF are to be voluntary, state-led, undertaken by both developed and developing countries, and involve multiple stakeholders. The voluntary national reviews (VNRs) aim to facilitate the sharing of experiences, including successes, challenges and lessons learned, with a view to accelerating the implementation of the 2030 Agenda. The VNRs also seek to strengthen policies and institutions of governments and to mobilize multi-stakeholder support and partnerships for the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals.

Annual progress report

Each year the UN Secretary General issues a progress report on the 17 SDGs. The dissemination platform of the Global SDG Indicators Database provides access to data compiled through the UN System in preparation for this report on “Progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals”

The data of the different editions is the one used on this website regarding the overall progress on SDGs. There are many other initiatives to measure issues related to the Sustainable Development Goals which will be mentioned in future posts. One worth mentioning is the one of the Sustainable Development Solutions Network (SDSN) which has been working since 2015 on elaborating indicators to complement the work of the official indicator framework.